Clothing Design

Clothing design 19th century (1800-1900)


Part One




Historical and social events during the 19th century that eclipsed European societies, accelerated the evolution and transition into the new lifestyle; and as usual, clothing was highly influenced by Fresher Forms and styles.


Comparing to the previous periods, the pace of changes had become more apparent in women’s clothing than in men’s.


Coat with velvet collar, waistcoat, silk shawl with golden ribbons, neckcloth fastened with a pin, trousers with a strap under the boots, long black leather boots.


Men’s Clothing


During the 19th century, men’s clothing was including (shirt, waistcoat, coat, the overcoat (topcoat), trousers, hat, and shoes)


Shirt: there was a starched collar that was visible over the top of the neckcloth and cravat.


The sleeves were long and the cuffs were pleated.


In the middle of the time period, men used to wear informal shirts that had small folds on the front of the chest. Formal shirts were from soft linen and in addition to the folds, they had beautiful embroideries. They were buttoned with diamond and had separate cuffs.


waistcoat:  it was from colorful pique fabric and there was a row of buttons on the front. People used to wear a cotton embroidered waistcoat.


In the middle of the timeline, some changes took place in the waistcoat design; There were two rows of buttons on the front, and a scarf-shaped lapel from silk and velvet in bright colors was existing. Sometimes, double waistcoats were worn for dinners and parties.


Coat: Frock or Tailcoat, with a slit in the middle of the tail and a lapel collar from a different fabric such as satin or velvet. There were two rows of buttons on the front of the coat.


In the middle of the period, a loose-fitting


A straight-cut coat was developed which was seamless on the waist and was called “Sack Coat”.


It was worn at informal gatherings and private parties.


Overcoat: There were two types of overcoats for winter:


Redingote which was a fitted coat.


Cloak coat was slightly loose and several layers of lapel collars were sewn to it.


A variety of different styles were presented over the century. Short and straight or tight and long overcoats that were called “Top Coat”. These coats were made of thick fabrics or cotton embroidered textiles and had a silk lining.


Trousers: Knee-length trousers were fashionable; but in the following years, long trousers and long tights below the knees became more popular. They were made of knitted linen fabrics and elastic deer leather.


But the most popular were the trousers from yellowish-white linen that were worn in formal and semiformal gatherings, throughout the year.


Another type was strapped trousers that were put inside of the boots. A pair of formal tight trousers up to the ankles which were worn with white or brown silk socks and plain float shoes. In the middle of the period, checkered and striped trousers became more popular.


Beautiful ribbons were sewn on their seams.


Hat: Hats had a long crown and visor. Around the crown of the hat was designed with a silk braid or ribbon or a metal buckle. The hats were made of silk, velvet or beaver felt. by the end of the period, the height of the crown was reduced and wad and mats were used in making them.


Shoes: It is interesting to know that wearing boots was more common, however, flat and smooth shoes with a short surface, were also worn.


Men’s Clothing Historical and social events during the 19th century that eclipsed European societies, accelerated the evolution and transition into the new lifestyle; and as usual, clothing was highly influenced by Fresher Forms and styles.[/caption]

Chestnut colored loose-fitting cloak coat with satin collar.


The buttons are From a similar material. Colored or striped trousers, black boots, silk hat (1837)


Redingote with two rows of buttons, satin collar, turn up pocket, buttoned- braid on the cuffs, neck cloth, shirt collar over the top of the neck cloth, beaver hat, leather boots.


Velvet collar tailcoat, thick twill striped waist coat with revere collar, neck cloth, tricot trousers with ribbons, black leather boots with brown turn ups, beaver hat (1809)


Beaver hat, checkered silk neck cloth and night cravat with embroidered tail (1853). Embroidered pleated shirt (1854) men’s cravat with long tails, soft collar of the shirt visible over the top of the cravat (1856) men’s necktie (1854) straight tie with pin, starched collar of the shirt (1857)


Women’s Clothing


Due to the diversity of women’s fashion during the 19th century, their clothing has been reviewed over four periods.


First period was Impria (1800-1815). During this era, fashion and styles were dictated by the kings and courtiers to the other classes of society. Public gatherings and dance parties were the best locations for fashion designers.


At this time, France government changed from a monarchy into a consulate and empire. The French revolution had a significant impact on clothing and sustained the change process designs and directoire style.


Pleated velvet spencer with ruche margins, white jaconet dress, silk tasseled braid under the bosom, ribbon bow tie, Titus hair style (1800).


Yellow linen dress with red or black patterns, embroidered bertha collar with fine folds, thin and delicate linen and lace sleeves, embroidered white cravat, red or black velvet braid at the top and bottom margins.


Ruffled skirt, black straw hat with flowers and floral ribbon, all in yellow color; black and white silk socks (1828)


Equestrian white trousers, three rows of buttons on the front of the upper part of trousers; Satin cravat and jaconet collar with fine folds around the neck, beaver hat designed with green lace, black boots (1828)


Gray Redingote from broadcloth, bone buttons, small hat and muff made of Persian lamb fair, small black feather on the hat, blue brocade ribbon, white gloves, black shoes (1894)


Women’s costumes were including: (Dress, Corset, Coat, Shawl, Pantalettes, Hat, Shoes).


Dress: The designs of the dresses were derived from the directoire period. It was one of the courtier designs during the French Empire era, Which was presented by Napoleon’s wife (Josephine). This design was including two dresses:




Major Dress


Petticoat: From embroidered blue stain with puffy short sleeves and the tail on the back and was hung from the waist.


Major Dress: From a silver woven silk fabric with tight long sleeves a long tail that was thrown on the left hand of wearer.


Both of the layers had an open square neck on the front and had lace standing collars at the back.


The style was similar to the decollete at Mary Antoinette era but the two corrers of the low neck were more open, at the front.


Both of the collars, mostly the major dress, were embellished.


In the early 19th, women used to wear a ruffled collar which was called “Betsy” in England and “Churros” in France. It was a separate collar that was placed around the neck and on the shoulders.


Corset: Bandeau that was specialized for holding breasts and was tied under the bosom, turned into a corset which was slightly tight and fitted on the waist line.


Coat: One type of coat was called “spencer”.


It was a short bust-length coat with long tight sleeves and a standing collar the front of the coat was open.


The other type was called “Canezou”. It was an open-bottom that was worn from the top and became tight and fitted on the waist.


Shawl: Shawl was one of the most important and luxurious parts of clothing.


It was made from high-quality cashmere and silk and had embroidered margins with Egyptian Fimbria.


Pantalettes: With the immersion of thin dresses, pantalettes necessity became more significant.


Jaconet culottes and bloomers with folded or lace margins were designed.


Hat: A type of Turban hat from brocade, satin, and velvet and was in different forms and sizes. Bonnet was fastened under the chin with strings.


Shoes: The shoes were flat with a short surface.


They were made of leather or cloth. A ribbon was attached to the back of the shoe that was meant to cross and tie around the wearer’s ankle.